Socio-economics characteristics, income inequality, and poverty status of female headed cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) farming households in federal capital territory, Nigeria



Poverty, Income, inequality, Cassava, female farming household


The study evaluated the socio-economic characteristics, income inequality and poverty status of female headed cassava farming households in Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria. Primary data were used for the study. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to select a total sample size of three hundred and three (303) households from the two area councils. The data were analyze using descriptive statistics, Foster-Greer-Thorbecke (FGT) poverty index, Gini coefficients, Probit model analysis, and principal components analysis (Factor Analysis). From the results about 59.73% of the female headed cassava farming households were less than 50 years old. 31.35% of the female headed cassava farming household were married. The mean household size was about12.00 persons. The mean annual income was 374, 868 Naira. About 56.77% of the female headed cassava farming household were poor given a poverty line N9, 009.37. In addition, 76% of female headed cassava farming households fell into annual income of below N500, 000 and they control 40% of the market share. The Gini coefficient was calculated to be 0.62. Maximum Likelihood Estimates (MLE) of the Probit Model shows that the coefficients of marital status (P<0.01), educational level (P<0.05), household size (P<0.01), income (P<0.1), and sources of livelihood (P<0.1) were the statistically and significant factors influencing poverty status among the female headed farming households in the study area. The results of the multinomial Logit model analysis show that the factors that statistically and significantly influencing the income inequality of female headed farming households in the study area, were coefficient of marital status (P<0.05), educational level (P<0.10), access to credit(P<0.05), and sources of livelihood (P<0.05) for low income earners. Educational level (P<0.01), access to credit (P<0.10) and farm size (P<0.01), were statistically and significant factors influencing income inequality or income distribution among high income earners among female headed farming households. Trading enterprise, cassava flour/garri processing, and palm/ groundnut oil pressing were major coping strategies employed by the female headed households to against poverty and income inequality. Based on the findings it was concluded that there was high income gap or income inequality among female headed farming households and they were poor. It was recommended that policies that will help create more credit access/programs in terms of loan at low interest rates for women should be implemented at all tiers of government to help mitigate and reduce the poverty among female headed household. Women should also be encouraged to diversify their sources of livelihood this will help them to have a relative equality or balance in their income levels all year round. Facilities should be made accessible to farmers, provision of rice processing equipment should be made available, more effort to empower women should be designed, contract farming and marketing should be encouraged, and information dissemination via communication devices for increased market participation and increased value sold among rice farmers should be a priority to eradicate poverty and improve livelihood. 


Download data is not yet available.

• Adebayo, P.F. (2012). Food Security in Nigeria: An Overview. European Journal of Sustainable Development, 1, 199-222.

• Adekoya, O. A. (2014). The Patterns and Determinants Of Agricultural Credit Use Among Farm Households In Oyo State, Nigeria. Asian Economic and Financial Review, 2014, 4(10): 1290-1297

• Adeniyi, R. T. and Yekinni, O. T. (2015). Arable crop farmers’ characteristics affecting the utilization of information and communication technology for agricultural marketing information in Oyo State, Nigerian. Journal of Rural Sociology, 15(2), 23-29.

• Agwu, M. E. & Kadiri, K. I. (2014). Analysis of critical strategic factors for successful implementation of poverty alleviation programmes in Nigeria. International Journal of Computational Engineering & Management, 17(1), 1-9.

• Ajakaiye, D. O. and Adeyeye, V. A. (2002). Concepts, measurement and causes of poverty. CBN Economic & Financial Review, Vol. 39 N0. 4

• Akpan, B. Udoh, E. J. Patrick, I. V. (2013). Sustaining Small Scale Farming: Evidence of Poverty and income Disparity among Rural Farming Households in South-South Region of Nigeria Sunday 2, № 9(14)

• Anthony, L., Alabi, O.O., Ebukiba E.S. , Gamba. V. (2021). Factors influencing output of rice produced and choice of marketing outlets among smallholder farming households, Abuja, Nigeria. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, 37(1): 262-277.

• Beaman, L. and Dillo, A. (2009). Do household definitions matter in survey design? Results from a randomized survey experiment in Mali.

• British Council (2012). Gender in Nigeria Report: Improving the Lives of Girls and Women in Nigeria, 2nd Edition, British Council, Nigeria. Retrieved from

• Damgaard. C., And Weiner, J. (2000). Describing Inequality in Plant Size or Fecundity. Ecology, 81(4), 2000, pp. 1139–1142.

• Duniya, K. P., and Rekwot, G. Z. (2015). Determinants of Poverty among Groundnut Farming Households in Jigawa State, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, 4(3): 224-230

• FAO, (2018). Food Outlook-Biannual Report on Global Food Markets – November 2018. Rome, p.104.License:CCBY-NC-SA3.0IGO. Retrieved from 320EN.pdf

• Fasoranti, M. M. (2010). The Influence of Micro-credit on Poverty Aleviation Among Rural Dwellers: A Case Study of Akoko North West Local Government Area of Ondo State. African Journal of Business Management, 4(8): 1438-1446

• Gbosi, A. and Omoke, P. C. (2004): The Nigerian Economy and Current Problems. Pack Publishers, Abakaliki, Ebonyi state.

• Hall, G. and Patrinos, H. (2005) Indigenous peoples, poverty and human development in Latin America: 1994-2004. Retrieved from Haughton, J., & Khandker, S.R. (2009). Handbook on Poverty and Inequality. Washington, DC: World Bank. Retrieved from

• Human Development Index Report (2011): Nigeria Country Profile: Human Indicators. Available at, Accessed on 05/06/2012

• Human Development Report (HDR) (2007). United Nations Development Program, November 27, 2007, p.25.

• Idowu, A.O., T.T. Awoyemi, B.T. Omonona & A.O. Falusi (2011). Non-farm Income Diversification and Poverty Among Rural Farm Households in Southwest Nigeria, European Journal of Social Sciences, 21(1): 163 – 176.

• Igbalajobi, O., Fatuase, A.I. and Ajibefun, I. (2013) Determinants of Poverty Incidence among Rural Farmers in Ondo State, Nigeria. American Journal of Rural Development, 1, 131-137

• Ignatius, A. M., (2006). The Underlying Factors of Rural Development Patterns in the Nsukka Region of Southeastern Nigeria. Journal of Rural and Community Development Case Study 2: 110-122.

• Morduch, J. and Sicular, T. (2000). Rethinking Inequality Decomposition, With Evidence from Rural China the Economic Journal, 112 (January), 93-106

• James Foster, Joel Greer and Erik Thorbecke Source: Econometrica, Vol. 52, No. 3 (May, 1984), pp. 761-766

• Kabeer, N. (2010). Can the MDGs Provide a Pathway to Social Justice? The Challenge of Intersecting Inequalities. Brighton: Institute of Development Studies. Retrieved from

• Kerrie, A., Wilson, Budiharta, S., Elizabeth A., Law, A., Poh, T.M., Ancrenaz, M., Struebig, M.J., Meijaar, E. (2019). Does oil palm agriculture help alleviate poverty? A multidimensional counterfactual assessment of oil palm development in Indonesia World Development 120 103-117

• National Bureau of Statistics (NBS), (2011). Nigeria Poverty Profile.

• National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP) (2006). Retrieved from Assessed 20/1/06.

• Nwachukwu, I.N. and Eze, C.I. (2007). Impact of Selected Rural Development Programmes on Alleviation I Ikwuano LGA, Abia State, Nigeria vol 7 No 5 1-18

• Nwaobi, G.C. (2003). “Solving the Poverty Crisis in Nigeria: An Applied General Equilibrium Approach”. December 17, 2012. Retrieved from

• Odusina Olaniyi, A. (2014). Assessment of Households’ Food Access and Food Insecurity in Urban Nigeria: A Case Study of Lagos Metropolis. Global Journal of Human-Social Science: Economics Volume 14 Issue 1 1-30

• Omonona, B. T. and Agoi, G.A. (2007). An Analysis of Food Security Situation Among Nigerian Urban Households: Evidence from Lagos State, Nigeria. Journal of Central European Agriculture Volume 8 No. 3 (397-406)

• Ostry, J. D., Berg, A., & Tsangarides, C. G. (2014). Redistribution, Inequality, and Growth. Washington, DC: IMF.

• Otekunrin, O. A., Ayinde, I. A., Sanusi, R. A., & Otekunrin, O. A. (2022). Assessing the determinants of agricultural commercialization and challenges confronting cassava farmers in Oyo State, Nigeria. Journal of Socioeconomics and Development, 5(1), 76-87.

• Otekunrin, O. A., & Sawicka, B. (2019). Cassava, a 21st century crop: How can nigeria harness its enormous trade potential? Acta Scientific Agriculture 3(8), 194-202.

• Quisumbing, A. Lawrence, H., and Christine P. (2001). “Are Women Overrepresented Among the Poor? An Analysis of Poverty in Ten Developing Countries.” Journal of Development Economics, 66(1): 225-269.

• SAHEL, (2016). Cassava: A staple Crop in Nigeria. SAHEL Newsletter, Volume 13(Issue 5), 1–5.

• Sallawu H., Tanko L., Nmadu J.N., Ndanitsa A.M. (2016). Determinants of Income Diversification Among Farm Households In Niger State, Nigeria Russian Journal of Agriculture and Social Sciences, 2(50), 55-65

• Stewart, F. (2010). Horizontal Inequalities as a Result of Conflict: A Review of CRISE Findings. Oxford: Centre for Research on Inequality, Human Security and Ethnicity.

• Stewart, M. J., Makwarimba, E., Reutter, L. I., Veenstra, G., Raphael, D., & Love, R. (2009). Poverty, Sense of Belonging and Experiences of Social Isolation. Journal of Poverty, 13(2), 173-195.

• Sumner, A. (2013). Who are the poor? New Regional Estimates of the Composition of Education and Health ‘Poverty’ by Spatial and Social Inequalities (Working Paper 378). London: ODI.

• UNDP Human Development Report, (2005). International cooperation at Crossraods: Aid, Trade and Security in an Unequal World: United Nations Development Programme.

• UNICEF, UN Women, UNDP, & OHCHR. (2014). TST Issues Brief: Promoting Equality, Including Social Equity Sustainable Development.

• United Nation Population Funds Agency – UNFPA. (2002). State of World Population 2002. People Poverty and Possibilities: Making Development Work for the Poor

• United Nations (UN), (2000).United Nations Millennium Declaration, UN General Assembly Distr.: General 18 September 2000.

• World Bank-Nigeria, (2012). World Bank Country Briefing. Retrieved from

• Yamane, T. (1967). statistics. An Introductory Analysis, 2nd Ed., New York: Harper and Row.



How to Cite

OMOLAYO ALABUJA, F., ANTHONY, L., & SAMUEL EBUKİBA, E. (2023). Socio-economics characteristics, income inequality, and poverty status of female headed cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) farming households in federal capital territory, Nigeria. International Journal of Agriculture, Environment and Food Sciences, 7(1).



Research Article