Bioactive compounds of hawthorn powders produced by convectional and lyophilized foam mat drying method
Keywords:Hawthorn, Powder, Foam Mat Drying, Lyophilization, Phenolic compounds, Antioxidant
Fruit powders produced with drying technologies have a wide range of uses in the food industry. The fruit powders have the potential to be used as a food supplement or natural colorant thanks to their health-promoting functional properties. Hawthorn is one of the fruits that has attracted attention in recent years with its positive effects on health. In this study, hawthorn powder was produced by convective (C) and lyophilized (L) foam mat drying methods. In preliminary experiments, the best foam properties were obtained with 1% egg white powder. The foams were dried until their moisture content decreased to 4±0.5%. Three different temperatures (60-65-70°C) were used in convective foam mat drying. Total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), antioxidant activity (ABTS and DPPH) and phenolic composition were determined in the powders. The convective foam mat dried at 60 °C (C-60) and lyophilized foam mat dried (L) samples exhibited higher TPC and ABTS values than other samples. In powder and fresh samples, gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, chlorogenic acid, epicatechin, and catechin were detected with the liquid chromatographic method. epicatechin and chlorogenic acid were the most abundant phenolic compounds in the samples. In the C-70 sample, epicatechin and protocatechuic acid were significantly lower (p<0.05). According to the results of the study, it was determined that the samples that applied the foam mat drying technique at 60 °C showed similar results with lyophilized foam mat drying. The foam mat drying method at 60 °C can be recommended as a preferred method in hawthorn powder production due to the reduction in drying time, low investment and operating costs.
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